Unloading of adfreezed loose cargoes

Methods of effective vibrating discharge of adfreezed loose materials from railroad cars in winter.

The enterprises with mining and transshipping complexes carry out great amounts of discharging works which demand considerable energy resources, labour expenditures and often make negative impact on stream of technological process, especially during winter time.

 Recently  the most widely spread method of unloading adfreezed loose cargos  from railroad cars after tilting comprises use of vibroloosening installations, which transmit static and dynamic effects on loosened cargo inside the railroad cars.

The development of construction, installation  and setting-up of vibroloosening installation was carried out by specialists from Institute of Geotechnical Mechanics of National Academy of Science of Ukraine,  building company “MLAD”,  Ltd “Kontur”, “Profesional” and port “Uzhniy”. The construction of device is patented.

Sampling and testing vibration installation took place in trade port "Uzhniy" in Odessa.

Vibration installation is intended for the mechanized unloading of adfreezed loose cargoes(coal, rubble, pellets, etc.), by preliminary vibration loosening the aggregated material in the car. Under vibration and the weight of vibration loosening tool, loosening pins intrude into adfreezed material and pierce it, breaking solidity. Lateral vibration of pins additionally loosens material, destroying its durability and preventing pins from blocking.

Vibroloosening installation is designed as a stationary overpass. Inside overpass there are three vibroloosening modules which are moving in the vertical plane (see Figure 1), and which are working in highly resonance mode. Stationary overpass, as a part of vibroloosening installation, is needed to ensure a strictly vertical movement inside the car without direct contact with car strapping and thus reduce the load on it and facilitate keeping cars from damage. In the construction of overpass there are four vertical guides, catcher, additional cross-linkages and amortization of support beams, the installation of vibration isolators.


                                                                          Fig. 1

Installation is composed of 3 vibroloosening modules, which supporting structure is a metal set of shelves of  5.3 m wide, 12 m long and  12 m high, and which is located above the railways by taking into account that  train can pass freely  through the installation.  There is an operational ceiling inside shelves on which three winches are established with lift capacity up to 5 thousand tons. Vertical lifting of vibroloosening modules is operated by winches and lowering happens under its own weight and vibration. Vertical guides and switches in the ends are provided. Hook of loosening of each module is up to 2.2 m wide and up to 3 m long.

Installation is managed by one operator from a special room. An operator’s place is a room, located on supporting structures and adjoined to the front of the main building for convenient management and good visibility of the working space. Operator switches on green traffic light and as a signal for locomotive driver to move the train until the moment of a red traffic light. To correct the effects of vibration on the operator's room, we build a separate construction on its own absorbers. Vibroloosening installation is set on separate monolithic foundations.

Construction and assembling of vibroloosening installation (see Figure 2).


Dimensions: Height - 12.15 m, length - 10 m, width of -5.3 m considering overhanging part - 7.5 m + operator's cab, in total width of 10m.

                                                             Fig. 2


 In Fig. 2 General scheme of vibroloosening installation: 1 – supporting beams, 2 - car;


 3 – operational mechanism with loosening pins;  4 – operator’s room;

 5. – guides system; 6 - vibroisolating traverse;

 7 – ceiling;  8 – winch; 9 –beam of  tier ceiling of installation;

 10 - clearance of rolling stock;  11 - foundations.

In “Uzhniy” port before implementation of vibroloosening installation locomotive of 20 cars filled with coal was placed inside warm place  for more then 20 hours and more in winter. However, the positive result was not always achieved. The cell’s  size of under-bunker grate in dumping cars mechanism is 60*60 сm, thus pieces of adfreezed cargo shouldn’t be bigger. The achieved productivity in “Uzhniy” port comprises 6,000 cars per month during the cold winter of 2002-2003.  In winter of 2004-2005 we obtained even better results.

 In reality it was rare need to make 4-6 vibro-module passes per 1 car with coal. One run of module in practice was carried out for 2-3 minutes, depend on the type of coal, humidity and level of freezing. Installation is constantly upgraded. The third copy is being mounted just now. Exploiters responses are positive.

The setting can be produced as 3-modular, 2-module, 1-on module system. The effectiveness of discharge is the same but productivity decreases.

The overall handling characteristics of unloading complex is determined by technology of the railway unloading in the enterprise.

The economic feasibility of the effectiveness of vibroloosening installation for unloading railroad cars from bulk cargo in the winter:

Use of vibration installation instead of warming in winter periods lets us reduce time of idleness, refuse using of manual labour in cars cleanings, reduce losses of transported cargo. However, the biggest economic result is obtained thanks to energy resources saving due to reducing time for cargo warming.

 The economic effect is calculated as follows (in this case for coal):

 Q= (Р*М*Т*З*К-РЧ*С)*п*А,

where: P  - specific heat capacity of coal;

          M - mass of coal;

          T-temperature of coal transportation ;

          З- cost of kcal of heat;

          К - coefficient of efficiency of heat transfer;

          Р – installed capacity of vibroloosening installation;

          Ч - time of discharge;

          С - cost of 1 kW of electricity;

          n - number of winter days in the year;

          A - number of cars per day.

If we take into account that installation is working 100 winter days and handling 80 cars per day, then the economic effect of reduction of power inputs on cargo warming will be around 1 million UAH per one vibroloosening installation.

Prospective customers for the design, installation, setting-up and commissioning of vibroloosening installation can be such companies as:

  •  Sea and river ports;
  •  Central concentrating mills;
  • Reinforced Concrete Products Plants;
  • Heat electropower stations;
  • Hydro power stations;
  •  Mining complexes, etc.
  •  Metallurgical Plants;
  •  Other enterprises that deal with handling bulk cargo, especially in the winter.

Private enterprise firm "MLAD"
49024, Dnepropetrovsk,
Universalna st., 10
tel. +38 (056) 370-59-87
tel.\ fax. +38 (056) 370-59-86